Antwerp Mannerism is attributed to works of Jan de Beer, those of the Master of 1518 (possibly Jan Mertens or Jan van Dornicke) as well as early paintings of Jan Gossaert and Adriaen Isenbrandt.
The term was coined by the art historian Max Friedländer in 1915. Friedländer referred to a 16th centrury style of painting, largely anonymous painters from Antwerp. The style bears no direct relation to Renaissance or Italian Mannerism. However, the name suggests a reaction to the “classical” style of the earlier Flemish painters. today we regard it as a late Gothic style which depicts religious subjects, though in its depiction of architecture, it borrows liberally from the Italian Renaissance as well.